• Jodenvervolging

Timeline of the Persecution of the Jews

Germany

1933

Jewish civil servants are dismissed

Jewish artists and journalists are forbidden to practice their profession

1935

15 September

In Nuremburg, Hitler announces changes in the racial laws. Jews are forbidden to marry non-Jews

1938

Jewish doctors and lawyers are only allowed to treat or assist other Jews.

9 November

Reichskristallnacht. Hitler and Goebbels decide to follow an organised programme of persecution. Dozens of synagogues are set on fire, thousands of shops have their windows smashed to smithereens and their contents plundered. Jews are beaten, robbed and killed. More than 30.000 Jews are sent to concentration camps.

November/December

Jewish enterprises and businesses are ‘Aryanised’.

German Jews’ civil liberties are severely curtailed.

1939/1940

The terrorizing of Jews in Poland begins, including forced mass evacuation from homes to ghettos.

The Netherlands

1940

1st July

Jewish employees of the Air-raid Defence Service are dismissed

5th August

Rules about the killing of animals are changed to prevent Jews from performing their slaughtering rituals

6th September

The Secretary General announces that Jews can no longer hold positions in government

5th October

Government workers must sign a declaration to say they are of Aryan descent

22nd October

Jewish business owners must register their business interests with the Wirtschaftsprüfstelle, (department for business control)

21st November

An announcement is made that Jews will no longer have jobs as civil servants

1941

9th January

Jews are forbidden from going to cinemas

10th January

All Jews must register with their local census office

5th February

Physicians must specify whether they are of Jewish blood

11th February

Jews cannot go to college

13th February

Formation of the Jewish Council for Amsterdam

22nd and 23rd February

Raids in Amsterdam

27th February

Jews may no longer be blood donors

12th March

Jewish companies are seized

15th March

Jews must surrender their radios

31st March

Establishment of the Central Office for Jewish Emigration

1st April

Jews are forbidden to go to cafes

11th April

First issue of Het Joodsche Weekblad (a weekly Jewish newspaper)

1st May

Jews are further limited in which professions they can work

4th June

Jews are restricted in their movements

11th June

Jews in Amsterdam are rounded up

8th August

Jews must transfer all their money and investments to Lippmann, Rosenthal & Co.

1st September

Jewish children must attend separate schools

11th September

Rounding up of Jews in Enschede: transferred to Mauthausen

15th September

Jews are prohibited from swimming pools, parks, libraries, zoos, theatres, museums, markets and other public places

7th and 8th October

Rounding up of Jews in the Achterhoek, Arnhem, Apeldoorn and Zwolle

22nd October

Jews must not be members of associations

7th November

Jews cannot travel without permission

5th December

All foreign Jews in the Netherlands must register for 'emigration'

1942

1st January

Jewish men are called to register with the Department for Employment in the north and east of the Netherlands Jews may no longer have non-Jewish domestic personnel

9th January

Public education for Jews prohibited

10th January

First Jews depart from Amsterdam to Jewish labour camps

17th January

Jews (Zaanse) must relocate to Amsterdam, the start of the concentration of Jews in Amsterdam

23rd January

Jews are banned from driving cars

All Jews must wear a badge bearing the letter ‘J’

25th March

Jews may not marry non-Jews. Sexual relations with non-Jews will be severely punished

26th March

Jews must not remove appliances from their homes

24th April

A large number of Jewish butchers close

29th April

Introduction of the Star of David in the Netherlands

12th May

Jews may no longer transfer money

21st May

Jews must surrender their valuables (jewellery, silver, etc.) to Lippmann, Rosenthal & Co.

29th May

Jews may no longer go fishing

5th June

Complete travel ban on Jews

12th June

Jews must not buy vegetables from non-Jewish shops

Jews must surrender bicycles and other vehicles

All sports are prohibited for Jews

26th June

Jews up to the age of 40 are sent to labour camps in Germany

30th June

Jews are forbidden from the streets after 8 pm

6th July

Jews are forbidden to make telephone calls

Jews may no longer visit non-Jews

Jews are only allowed to shop in non-Jewish shops between 15.00 and 17.00

14th July

Raids in Amsterdam

15th July

First transport from Westerbork

Abandoned houses are emptied by the Germans

17th July

Jews may only go shopping between 15.00 and 17.00

31st July

Jews may no longer visit hairdressing salons

August

Raids during the whole month

8th September

In The Hague, Jews may no longer sit on public benches

15th September

Jewish students banned from studying

2nd and 3rd October

Raids on Jewish labour camps

Families are arrested in their homes and taken to Westerbork

Autumn 1942

Call-up papers are no longer issued. Jews are removed from their homes without prior notice

An assembly takes place at the Hollandsche Schouwburg (Dutch Theatre)

1943

26th January

Patients at the Apeldoornsche Bosch psychiatric hospital are transported to Auschwitz

26th May

Raids in the centre of Amsterdam. Thousands sent to Westerbork

20th June

Raids in south and east Amsterdam. Thousands sent to Westerbork

29th September

Last major raid in Amsterdam. Jewish Council sent to Westerbork

Spring / Autumn

Measures against Jews in mixed marriages are planned.

Forced sterilisation of Jews begins

1944

2nd February

Group of Portuguese Jews sent to Westerbork

March

Raids on mixed marriage households in Amsterdam

13th September

Last transport from Westerbork

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Route descriptions

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